DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS
Different ideas from various world philosophers have put in place in historical perspectives. This is because of challenges confronting human race and some questions posed by human being. The following are some philosophical ideas given by philosophers.
PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS OF PLATO
He lived in 427 – 347 BC. He was an Educator/ Teacher of Aristotle. He wrote much on politics, ethics and critical thinking.
In 387BC he returned to Athens and opened school which referred to as platonic school (the academy). There he taught advanced mathematics and philosophy. He also expounded many ideas including reasoning, ethics and politics.
Until his death in 347 BC he became very influential philosopher in Greek and various principles and laws in administration, history, education and law have been developed and used in Greek and other parts of the world. Plato established his philosophy responding to the situation existed in Greece particularly the Athenians
Plato’s ideas on the field of state
In the field of state, Plato applies the human soul analogy to derive the concept of a state. He compares the ideal state to human soul. He argued that the human soul ha three different elements. The raw appetites, the drives (hunger and ambitions) and the thought or intellect. He maintained that in a virtuous or a just person each of these three elements fulfills its own unique function being guided by reason.
From this analogy, Plato contended that, the ideal or just state is also defined to have three elements, each performing its unique functions.
Here Plato came with ideas pertaining the ideal state; to Plato it meant “Republic”.
To him a state or republic possessed the people of different quality to serve the state or public basing on their innate intelligence, strength and courage
To Plato the first group consisted of the people of the lowest class, this group encompassed of those people who are not overly bright or strong or brave are suited to various productive professionals, like farming, ironsmith and building. It consisted of an overwhelming majority of people in a state he called them the “producers”.
The second group is comprised of those who are somewhat bright, strong and especially courageous. This made the middle section of the society which made up the army and the police he called them “Auxiliaries” (Arvind, 1975:25). To Plato these were suited to defensive and protection professions like military men, soldiers and policemen.
The upper class or the third group consisted the best and brightest or those who are in complete control of the state permanently Plato called them This group included those who are extraordinary intelligent, virtuous and brave, and are suited to run the state as Governors, Presidents, commissions and Kings.
Plato further divided the duties to these groups as follows.
The appetitive element of the soul corresponds to the class of craftsmen in a state, whose function is the satisfaction of the material and physical needs.
The drives element corresponds to the second class of police/ soldiers in a state, who assists the governing class and their function is protection of the society
The intellectual or rational element of the soul corresponds to the governing class in a state whose function is governing the people in a state.
Plato identified three basic functions of a well-ordered state to be: the satisfaction of the physical needs, protection of the society and governing individuals in the state
Plato argues that in the healthy state like in the well-ordered soul the rational element is in control. Thus, for Plato, the ideal state is a class-structured system ruled by the Philosopher King.
For Plato, the Philosopher King (the rule) should be a man who has the highest knowledge. He believed that with the philosopher king there will be wise people in a nation. Therefore, the role of the ruler of the state according to him was to maintain order because of his superior knowledge.
Plato further argued that if a state happens to have a competent ruler there would be no need for men to be governed by law. He believed that the state governed by law is always a sign of weaknesses of men.
Moreover, Plato claimed that the ruler is to make full use of lies and deceits but for the benefit of the state. The ruler of the state should deceive the enemies and citizens for the benefit of the state (noble lie).
In his ideal state he concluded by saying that a state may be said to have temperance if the auxiliaries obey the Guardians in all things and the producers obey auxiliaries. Each group should obey the one up class but should be done willingly without any coercion but enjoying doing so.
Generally, the philosophical ideas of Plato have got a vital contribution in the contemporary societies all over the world, both socially economically and politically.
Plato’s ideas on economy
On economy Plato believed that great differences in wealth are inconsistent with good governance. Therefore he maintained that, the ruler should abolish private ownership for if he/ she have private wealth, he/ she will have divided loyalty due to conflict of interest.
Plato’s ideas on democracy
Plato’s view on Democracy was pessimistic (expecting that bad results in the future). He regarded government as a form of government or leadership in which people’s impulses are not put under control, the results of which is lack of order and direction. (Impulses; The people’s tendencies of acting suddenly without thinking about consequences) hence Plato regarded democracy as Monocracy i. e, rule or dominion of the mass. He therefore came up with the following assertions.
Plato came with the assertion that rulers of any state should be fit and best with qualified person
He also emphasized the equality of all citizens in the right to speak in the governing assembly and right before law.
To Plato democracy meant the rule by people. This came during the first half of the 5th century BC when it gained acceptance as a sole legitimate authority in ruling.
Plato’s ideas in educational approach
According to Plato he termed education as a vital tool to bring up a generation that was sensitive to the service of the society, this means every citizen had a duty to serve the society accordance with their place and abilities as well (education knowledge).. It is an instrument by which a philosopher king is molded. Since it is a means of promoting the good of the society, it should not be left in the private hands.
Therefore it should be provided by the state and should be closely supervised.
For well ordered government education was preoccupation of each man throughout his life, because the state itself or government would require the quality of its people and their rulers (the level of education of the people in certain states determine the stable government and state as well).
According to Plato the education acquisition could firmly depend on the abilities of individuals in the society. “the education system was duty – bound to selectively yet effectively prepare the young generation for future roles differentiated according to their abilities”.
Thus, he divided the people of his society into three categories, bright ones (the golden boys) these were educated for future position as philosopher kings, the less bright but physically fit (the silver boys) were to be trained to be the defenders of the republic (as soldiers), the pupils with lowest ability/ people intellectually less (iron boys) demanding vocation i.e. manual labour and similar occupations.
Plato also emphasized education to be a primacy of the social process. This means education to him was for discovering as well as problem solving tool in which each one would be trained for services of many in the society.
He argued the educated (golden boys) to liberate or to assist the non educated people in the society. The golden boys must acquire education to their level then they must descend into the society with problems (like disease, poverty, famine and ignorance) and assist in the whole process of uplifting them.
Plato’s ideas on forms of leadership/ government
Plato identified five forms of leadership or government. In his book VIII of the republic, he identified the following forms of government.
Aristocracy; According to Plato, this is a form of government governed by rational philosopher kings
Timocracy; according to him it is a form of government or leadership in which the ruling class is motivated by love of honour rather than love for the common good
Plutocracy; The form of leadership or government ruled by men who primarily desire riches. According to him, under Plutocracy, the society is divided in two classes, i.e. the class of the rich and that of the poor.
Democracy; Plato regarded this form of government to be a result of Plutocracy since he saw democracy to be a type of leadership to be best used in the society which honoured wealth. Hence, he argued that “a society that honours wealth cannot maintain self-control”. Hence, Plato’s view on democracy was that it was a system of leadership in which people’s tendencies to act suddenly cannot be kept under control and the result is prevalence of chaos. Hence, democracy should be the system for controlling the decisions made by the rulers so as to maintain order in the society.
Tyranny; The form of government which is formed when the democratic mob submits itself to strongman, each person selfishly figuring to gain from the tyrant’s rule and believing that the tyrant will end democracy’s evil. In this form of leadership or governance or leadership, the tyrant in turn acquires absolute power and enslaves his subjects he seeks to cling to power forever.
How Plato’s ideas have influenced the socio-economic development of Tanzania
The extent to which Plato’s ideas have shaped the socio-economic development of Tanzania can be looked upon basing on how Tanzania practices Plato’s ideas in running various sectors. These can be assessed in the following areas.
Education in Tanzania imitates the Platonic ideas of educational setting.
In Tanzania the learning is centralized in terms of curriculum and it is organized hierarchically.
It is the responsibility of the state to ensure that the national values are translated in the curriculum through the Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE) for primary, secondary, teachers’ colleges and vocational education; and higher learning institutions are managed through Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) while the non-universities are coordinated through National Council for Technical Education (NACTE).
The philosophy of Plato stands today in Tanzania since most of Plato’s assertions can be observed in Tanzania’s educational system. For example; In Tanzania education as one go up the education radar, the fewer learners may be found than the previous stage.
Political leaders use noble lie when necessary for the sake of state security. Even in Tanzania this has been adapted and practices as it can be observed when the leaders use the noble lie to the public or the foreign investors whenever it seems unsafe to the nation.
Leadership code of ethics
This requires the public leaders not to use public office for private gains. Therefore, in order to avoid conflict of interest, leaders should not be heads of public enterprises of which they own a share since they will find themselves using their powers to secure their interests. This has also been adapted in the Tanzania governing system.
Level of education for one to be a president
In Tanzania the aspect is given priority among the citizens when electing leaders, that the president should at least have a certain level of education, although the constitution does not require a contestant of presidency to be highly educated.
Importance of ruling according to law
Plato’s conceptions of sovereignty of law in which leaders are not to be guardians of the law is given emphasis in Tanzania. For example; in Tanzania there is control of abuse of power, independent judiciary and equality before the law.
PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS OF ARISTOTLE
Aristotle like Plato, was a Greek philosopher who lived between (384 – 322 BC). He was born in Stagira, a Greek colony in Macedonia. He was a philosopher, logician and scientist of his time; he was a student of Plato (studied in Plato’s academy in Athens).
Aristotle became a teacher of Alexander the great who became more influential ruler in Greece and Asia Minor. In 335 BC, he opened a school in Athens where he put into practice the ideas he had came to believe in.
Aristotle died in Calcis on the island of Euboea which had granted him a refuge when he was exiled in Athens. His ideas in education, democracy, state and economy, majority was a critique to Plato ideas and others oriented on the situation which were in place.
Idea of Aristotle in field of education, democracy and state
Aristotle ideas on the field of State
Aristotle claimed that the state is very important because it has to promote the good life of the citizens and the ideal state is the one which is governed by law.
Furthermore, Aristotle saw that man is by nature a social animal. Hence, a being who fails to live in association with others is either a beast or a god. According to him the state is the highest social order which exists for the complete life of the citizens and an individual can fulfill the end of his existence only in the state.
Aristotle came with the following assertions.
To Aristotle the state he conceived was that, it is a community in nature on which the human nature intrinsically exists. The role of human nature according to Aristotle was to expand the state to its highest power.
He also revealed the state in its development toward promotion of noble life and happiness of all citizens, thus, he considered the family, the community and the state as vehicles for morality and for the good life for man.
To him the best state is the one that comes into being and achieves its end through the highest good as manifested by citizens individually and collectively. Thus, to him a constitutional democracy which is supported by majority citizen is the best state and government as well.
In examining the various kind of government/ state he found virtue in monarchy, Aristocracy and what might be termed as constitutional democracy, but because of existence of corruption and irresponsible leaders monarchy can develop easily into tyranny, Aristocracy into oligarchy where wealth becomes a qualification of office and constitutional democracy into disorganized democracy i.e. mob rule.
Aristotle’s concepts of law in a state
While Plato’s ideal state is that governed by the philosopher king, Aristotle’s best state is the one governed by the law. Aristotle identified the following advantages inherent in a state governed by law.
Law exists for the public interests
Government is ruled by impersonal regulations, i.e. Government is ruled not according to the wills of the ruler.
Constitutional government means government of willing of the subjects as distinguished from rule by force.
Therefore, according to Aristotle law is a necessary condition of a moral and civilized life. That’s why the first sentence in his book of “politics” says; “man when separated from law and justice is the worst of all animals”
Aristotle ideas on education
In the realm/ field of education Aristotle came with ideas which became more influential in his time and such philosophy spread all over the world.
To Aristotle the proper learning is that which will encompasses the use of sense experience such as (tasting, hearing, touching, observing and so forth). To him the essence of things could be discovered only through reasoning (through channel of reasoning).
He emphasized that the learner (pupil/student) should be trained by the education which should be both moral and political one, that means the learner in general should be taught the virtues and examples of both being good (moral behaviour) and doing good (practicing good deed).
He emphasized that the curriculum to be used should be that which has included rhetoric – artful and articulation of public speaking in order to realize the virtues.
Both the learner and education (teachers, tutors and professors) should use inductive method in reasoning and argumentation (speaking, teaching and languages) i.e. from specific to general.
Aristotle ideas on Democracy
Form of government according to Aristotle is a democracy whereby all the citizens share equally in the government. It is a type of government in which inferior classes are well treated and the principles of equality among themselves are practiced. It is a government in which offices should be held for short terms so that all people can participate and all leaders speak for the interest of classes rather than their own interests.
One of themes on which Aristotle put more stress was democracy. To him He expounded various ideas on democracy as follows:-
Aristotle view democracy as a rule of many as opposed to select few. These many who should rule must be the poor who are majority in many society of the world. He thus opposed the richness as the quality of ruling others.
Also according to him, political formation should be divided between the rich and the poor to ensure a balanced democracy in two classes. He does not support the idea of people to hold offices (power) singly or a group of people (but should base on polity – the government ruled by middle class on which majority are poor and few rich).
His philosophy also encourages the polity government which combines democracy, oligarchy and aristocracy. This type of government to Aristotle was which could serve the nation as a whole, because considered the interest of the majority.
However, Aristotle accepted constitutional democracy as a precisely qualification for an ideal form of government/ state. But yet there are some criticism on his philosophy of state, first, the state have spread beyond confines of community (Greek city state), second, also in the light of modern science which has made everything relative to something else, it is not possible to talk of an intrinsic human nature and the best moral life, for what was moral and natural to Aristotle is manifestly immoral and unnatural today.
It is also notable that when Aristotle and his contemporaries spoke of citizens and the state composed by them they had in mind the small community of slave owners, the slaves being strictly excluded from this attempt to establish a natural and moral life. In today’s context when one faith proclaimed a being basic to all political system in democracy and equal rights to all human beings, this sort of exclusive states can come or remain in existence.
Aristotle’s ideas on education
Aristotle thought of adequate education to the citizens as the most important stabilizer of the state. Hence, Aristotle argued that the state has to provide education to its citizens. According to him, the state through education provides the means and the media to the individual attainment of intellectual, moral and physical excellences that will enable them live the good life. He argued; – “Good life consists not only a maximum use of pleasure but in being an active and virtuous person”. This is an element produced through education.
Influences of Plato and Aristotle’s ideas on development of our country
The philosophical ideas of Plato and Aristotle have significance in human life throughout the world in historical perspectives. Their influences have impacted on development socially, economically and politically as well.
Here under are some influences of Plato and Aristotle in development of a country like Tanzania: –
First, in the field of education the learning and teaching uses their ideas for example logic argumentation as proposed by Aristotle and grammatical presentation of ideas and so forth.
Secondly, they have both formulated the principles which should be used in ruling and exercising of power for example in Tanzania we use democratic constitution which was suggested by Aristotle also by Plato who stressed equality of people in right to speak and equality before According to Tanzania constitution all matter pertaining government and its people are stipulated in national constitution.
Thirdly, Tanzania education system is still demarcating the people according to their abilities of understanding. This is observed through examinations which determine their (citizen) level of understanding. The one who are capable join the level of education according to their abilities, for example from primary education, then secondary education and finally tertially education. As the pyramid increases the number of learners decreases because of capability. Some of these ideas have derived from Plato philosophy who demarcated the people of his society according to their capability.
Also their ideas teaches the world society particularly Tanzania, that gaining power by using corruption can distort democracy and prosperity of nation. They also denied richness as a qualification of a person to be on power especially the philosophy of Aristotle. However, it is no longer practically because many politician use money or financial status to gain power.
Profoundly, their ideas have contributed on scientific approaches for example the philosophy of Aristotle put much stress on scientific observation than the idealist as suggested by Plato. To Aristotle the scientific innovation can enhance development of a nation. Besides, believes on God in realm of faith can enhance development and moral development as suggested by idealists (Plato and contemporaries). Thus, in development of a nation like Tanzania both scientific approaches and beliefs can induce national development. For example, industrial development induces scientific innovation and believes to God assist in reduction of sin, crimes and lead to observance of human rights.
Thus, the ideas of Plato and Aristotle have got much influence on socio – economic and political development in contemporary societies. Their philosophy has contributed much development in education, politics, democracy and governing system of many nations particularly Tanzania.
Analysis of philosophical ideas of Karl Marx and Lenin
As other philosophers, Karl Marx lived between (1818 – 1883), he was German social scientists, historian and revolutionist. He analyzed much on capitalism society and laid the theoretical basis for political movement. He analyzed the class struggle against the dominant classes / ruler who were subjugating, exploiting or oppressing the ruled class.
He came with dialectical materialism as it was formerly analyzed by Hegel that given situation(thesis) generate opposite forces (the antithesis) that ultimately break up the original situation and produce new one (the synthesis) “ this means the exploited classes like slaves during slavery, serfs (during feudalism), proletariat (working class) (during capitalism) should took action against the oppressors through revolution and impose the new system of administration which is free from exploitation and oppression.
Philosophical ideas of Karl Marx on capitalism, scientific socialism and communism
Marx philosophical ideas on capitalism, scientific socialism and communism came in as a result of situation existed during his time. But, also he became embraced with Hegel philosophy. Consequently, led him (Marx) to view capitalism system as enemy of society in his time. Thus, scientific socialism and or communism to Karl Marx could inevitably emerge due to contradiction and opposition pressure on capitalism. But how Marx viewed capitalism, scientific socialism and communism?
Ordinarily capitalism is defined as the socio-economic system whereby few people own capital and use it to exploit the majority. As already noted above Marx writings came as a result of situations which were prevailing in his society, thus, he developed negative altitude with the system.
His ideas on capitalism were as follows:-
To Karl Marx capitalism is based on exploitation of the working class (proletariat) by owner of capital like factories, machinery and working capital.
To Marx each society develops an ideology i.e. a set of official belief or religious doctrine justifying the power of the ruling class. Thus, he gave example that during ancient slave holding , society was divided into classes on which the slaves toiled but owner exploited them, an ideology was Pantheon of Greco-Roman religion, during feudalism the ruling class (noble) exploited the serfs and an ideology existed was Christian religion. Then from feudalism to capitalism emerged new ruling class, the bourgeoisie who were able to accumulate monetary capital and modern technology of industrial production, ideology existed during capitalism stage was lazars fair liberalism, with parliament government that denied the vote to workers and protected the bourgeoisie. (Encyclopedia Americana 1982:388)
Marx predicted that people would be against capitalism system especially industrial workers who were exploited by the capitalist and would overthrow the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and expropriate the owners of capital and establish classless society.
Marx believed that capitalism would be paralyzed by the contradictions between the social nature of industry and the system of over more concentration private property. Capitalism would exhaust its possibility of development and give way in the next stage of proletarian heaven (socialism).
- Socialism and Communism
Karl Marx used these term interchangeably but before going further, these two term should be conceptualized, communism is a social structure in which classes are abolished and property is commonly controlled as well as a political philosophy that advocates and aim to create a society, where socialism is a political philosophy that encompasses various theories of economic organization based on either public or direct ownership of means of production and allocation of resources (http/www.marxist.org).
His ideas on socialism and communism were as follows:-
To Marx philosophy termed dialect materialism as better way to bring a desired society (socialism) to Marx given situation (thesis) generate opposite forces (the antithesis), that ultimately break up the original situation and produce new one (synthesis). That means the given situation was capitalism which were opposed by proletariat and ultimately sparked revolutions (antithesis), thus the society which emerged is the socialist communism society (synthesis).
According to the law of dialect each social system generate the forces that will destroy it and create a new system with a political revolution, thus to Karl Marx scientific socialism would inevitably realized through proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie class.
To him the mankind has experienced five types of society, primitive communalism, Asiatic society, ancient slave holding society, feudalism and capitalism. These type of society are coupled with own superstructure and ideology justifying the power of the ruling class. He noted that contradictions which would emerge within such society would create other type of society, thus, socialism came in as the result of contradiction which emerged in capitalist society.
Marx was convinced that his historical and economic research had created the basis for scientific socialism by breakdown capitalism and establishes proletariat ruling class. The proletariat ruling class would abolish private ownership of means of production, eliminate class differences and thus usher in the classless society of communism. At this stage therefore the contradictions between the ruling class and the subject will end and the process of dialect would finally come to an end.
However, several Marxists emerged all over the world and embraced his philosophy i. e. followed the doctrine of Karl Marx. Among those was V.I Lenin of Russia and became being called Marxists.
Lenin lived between 1870 – 1924 A. D. He was born at Simbirsk Russia and died in Moscow. He was a Russian revolutionary and a communist politician who joined the Bolshevik group and ultimately led the October revolution of 1917. He headed the Soviet state in initial years after revolution from 1917 to 1924; in his lifetime he developed the socialism and communism doctrines which used by the leaders who followed him and in other parts of the world.
As it was Karl Marx, Lenin also fought vigorously with the development of capitalism system in Russia. He challenged the capitalist system which was at the infant stage in Russia under the leadership of Tsar. The first profound step was to develop philosophy which could lead his people to the desired society of communism.
Philosophical ideas of V. I. Lenin on Capitalism, Scientific socialism, Communism and Democracy
Lenin’s philosophy based on situation which was prevailing in his society, but also the nature of capitalism system as a whole.
He explained the capitalism as the class or society which exploits majority such as petty bourgeoisie, proletariats, and peasants. This class of bourgeoisie decides on what to pay to the majority and dominate the major means of productions such as machinery, industries and capital.
Also according to Lenin capitalism and its doctrines appropriates institutions of violence like prison, police, army and so forth. These institutions have been used to subjugate the exploited class through threatening them. This has been done by powerful economically (capitalists) dominant class who sponsor the government or political dominating class
To him he suggested the only means of eliminating capitalism is inevitably trough revolution. Because no any democratic atmosphere will ever prevail in the capitalism system, thus, the exploited class should overthrow the exploiting class (the capitalists).
- Scientific Socialism
On scientific socialism V.I Lenin came with a doctrine on it in which he revealed some principles which should guide a state, workers and leaders.
His views were as follows.
He believed that socialism could be established in a country which had not passed through the full development of industrial capitalism. Because of this stage the capitalist class (bourgeoisie) would not possess a handsome capital and ideology of exploiting the mass would be very few and not strong.
He believed that with introduction of scientific socialism the classes would be eliminated, something which he termed as exploiting class of the majority (bourgeoisie). Thus, to Lenin socialism meant that all means of production to be in the hand of the state which was to build the future classless society (Farah, 1985:597). The state could engage (in planning and distribution of resource) to the whole member of state (citizens) equally.
The scientific socialism could be attained only through revolution. And after overthrowing the capitalists, what he called dictatorship of proletariat should inevitably installed. This organ would include proletariats, peasants and petty bourgeoisie. Their responsibilities would be to crush the oppressors and exploiters, and to deal with anti- communist public action.
However, there is slight different between the socialism and communism. But what came first was the socialism by Karl Marx and communism came later under V. I. Lenin but all of them embrace equality also, referred to as Marxists or Marxist – Leninism philosophy.
This was political ideology based on idea of Marx and Lenin. But at an ordinary level communism is a social structure which could not embraces classes and private property ownership. The supporter of communism was V.I Lenin and his supporters were known as reds and were spread all over the world.
His doctrine of communism embraced the following.
Communism could be built only by using force and terror; these means the communism doctrine could be installed through use of violence and abolish religious false consciousness because it is the tool used by the capitalist to exploit the majority (proletariat) thus, with this view, through use of force the communist government was able to abolish operation of Russian Orthodox church.
The classless communist society could inevitable built by professional revolutionalists who would build by small political party (vanguard party) at first. The party would be a tight knit organization operated like an army and would not allow anyone to oppose it.
To Lenin the communist and capitalist states could never live peacefully together. He declared that the two groups would struggle until one destroy other as happened in Russia which culminated in the formation of United Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R).
To Lenin the communism’s dictatorship of proletariat is governed with a decentralized direct democracy practiced via soviet (council) where the workers exercise political power and spread the communist ideology in such councils. Beside of spreading of communism in councils Lenin also encouraged the need to spread communist revolution to other countries of the world because capitalism had already moved across the borders of many nations under belief of imperialism (colonialism).
Marx and Lenin philosophy has influenced much the change of ideological and political system from capitalism to socialism, and also has sparked the emergence of radical intellectuals / people throughout the planet earth. Many people have embraced Marx – Leninism philosophy in the developing their nations but also fuelled the nationalist struggle. Among of these included people like Mao, Trotsky andStalin but also including African nationalists leaders like J.K Nyerere and Milton Obote, other nations such as Cuba Vietnam, Venezuela and others are still embracing the Marxists philosophy.
Influences of Karl Marx and Lenin’s philosophical ideas on socio-economic development in Tanzania
Karl Marx and his follower Lenin and other Marxists influenced a lot in the development countries particularly Tanzania.
But major influences include the following:-
Adaptation of the socialism philosophy, after Arusha declaration of 7th February 1967, the so called Arusha declaration came in, at that time the socialism and self reliance was introduced. This was an African oriented socialism but it had a root from the Marxists one.
Under socialism and self reliance the state was inevitable controller of all major means of production from the lowest rural level (Meredith, 2006:1248). Likewise communism and socialism by Lenin and Marx encouraged the ownership of major means of production by a state. The state could deal with production, planning and distribution of resources in the classless society.
Enhanced the liberation spirit to the Tanzanian leaders, due to adaptation of socialism Tanzania became the center for liberation struggle in the continent (it was against exploitation of colonialists in Africa). Being dominated by colonialists meant prevailing of capitalism and its exploitative philosophy. Many nations were liberated like Mozambique, Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana.
Karl Marx and Lenin’s ideas influenced education sector of Tanzania, with socialism and self reliance concept the institute of education introduced in the education for self reliance. This was designed to make Tanzania a socialism state on which its people engage in production for their wellbeing and less dependency to other countries, because through dependency is where the exploitation is mounted.
Tanzania mounted worker code of conduct on which no any worker could practice the capitalist principle. Arusha declaration prohibited workers from holding shares, directorship in more than one company, receiving more than one salary and no owning house for rent.
By doing this the classes of people and income gap among of the Tanzanians could be eliminated or reduced. This directly inherited the socialism and communism principle of the classless society led by dictatorship of proletariat as it was used by Lenin and Karl Marx.
Karl Marx and V.I Lenin philosophy have influenced the emergency of radical people who sparked some revolution. Tanzania Island practiced Marxist ideas of overthrowing an existing government by the oppressed class (peasant and proletariat) this occurred in Zanzibar by 1964.
This means that the principles of overthrowing the capitalist by the exploited class was practically done in Zanzibar whereby the mass of peasants (Africans) overthrew the capitalist class (colonialists) dominated by Arabs and British.
However, Karl Marx and V. I. Lenin influenced much not only in Tanzania but also in other place of the world as well. Their philosophy of communism and socialism has been used by other nations.
It has triggered many radical changes from capitalism system to socialism through number of revolutions. At the time many Authors writes their intellectual works biased either in capitalism or socialism schools of thought, beside the world government of today are either basing on capitalists or socialists philosophy.