International affair refers to the interactions between countries, which consist of self-interest strategies chosen by the states to safeguard their national interests both economically, socially, politically and technologically, so as to achieve goals within their international relations. The relations can be based on political, economic, diplomatic and culture relation among the nations.
It encompasses issues including International cooperation, among countries (both multilateral and bilateral one), the foreign policy, Globalization, Arbitration and reconciliation, world big powers and their role in maintaining world peace and understanding, as well as war against Terror.
International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.
In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy, trade, and foreign policy—and relations with and among other international actors, such as intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), international legal bodies, and multinational corporations (MNCs).
International relations is widely considered a subdiscipline of political science. However, IR draws considerably upon international economics, international law, world history, and cultural anthropology. In the US, IR is frequently one of the sub-fields within political science departments, but some academic institutions characterize it as an independent or multidisciplinary .
While international politics has been analyzed throughout much of history, IR did not emerge as a discrete field until the turn of the 20th century, initially as an extension of political science; it was first distinguished as its own discipline in 1919, when it was offered as an undergraduate major by Aberystwyth University in the United Kingdom. Over the next decade, similar studies were established at the University of Oxford and London School of Economics, which led the field to develop its independence and prominence.
After the Second World War, international relations burgeoned in both importance and scholarship—particularly in North America and Western Europe—partly in response to the geostrategic concerns of the Cold War.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent rise of globalization in the late 20th century presaged new theories and evaluations of the rapidly changing international system[disambiguation needed.
Into the 21st century, as connections between states become progressively more complex and multifaceted, international relations has been incorporated into other fields, such as economics, law, and history, leading to a convergent, interdisciplinary field.
AREAS IN WHICH COUNTRIES COOPERATE
The countries may form relations to safeguard their interests basing on various areas such as the following; –
Political relation; Is the cooperation whereby the two or more independent state share ideas above political matters
Diplomatic relation; Is the level of international relation whereby different embassies are involved in structuring political, economic, social and cultural matters within their home countries and the lost countries.
A diplomat is a person who officially represents his/her own country in a foreign country.
Cultural relation; among the nations can be started in various form like the exchange of dances troops, theater groups, Musician and also sports and games. e.g. through world cup, UEFA, Kagame Cup, FA Cup etc. different nations come together and compete. This situation develops strong culture relation.
Economic relation; Is the situation whereby two or more independent states share economic activities e.g. International trade. There are four forms of economic relations. These are free trade area, customs union, common market and economic union.
FORMS OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS
There are several forms of economic relations basing on the king of relation countries have chosen to enter. The following are the types;
A free trade area
This is a type of economic relation in which the member countries agree to eliminate trade restrictions such as tariffs, import and export quotas, which hinder free movement of goods and services, etc. in this form of economic relation, each member is free to establish independent tariffs (taxes on imports) against non member country
A custom union
This is the type of economic relation whereby the members have a common tariff against the non member countries
A common market
at this stage of economic relations, member countries establish common tariff against non member states but there is a free movement of goods and services among the member countries, i. e. capital and labour are free to move.
An economic union
This is a form of economic relations whereby member countries allow free movement of goods and services and at the same time institute joint ownership of certain enterprises and all economic policies are harmonized. E. g. enterprises like roads, railways, etc are jointly being carried out.