Science and technology is an engine for socio-economic development. It is science and technology which aid in utilization of resources, improvement of quality of goods and services produced and aid a lot in the distribution of the utilized resources to the consumers. This subtopic wills asses the role of science and technology in improvement of modern industries, provision of social services, agriculture and food.

  • Modern Industries

Industries are places where goods are manufactured. This can be industries for production of modern devices such as computers, motor vehicles, cars, ship buildings,   spare parts but also electronic devices of various natures and so forth.


Science and technology play crucial role as follows:

Security devices for industries are produced by using science and technology. These devices include alarming devices, CCTV cameras, electricity wire, monitoring devices such as computers and camera. These ensure efficient in production but also the safety of goods produced as well as security of industries in general.

Transport and communication .For propelling of industries are highly in need of transport and communication. Transport and communication include telephones, internet, roads, railways and labor. These assist industries to transfer some manufactured goods from industries to customers, but also importation of raw materials from producing areas to industrial areas depends on transport and communication, but also search for customers/ markets requires communication through communication devices such as internet, telephone, and website. All of these have been granted by science and technology use.

Raw materials needed in industries are extracted by using science and technology. For example manufacturing industries are in need of mineral resources either iron, steel, gold, diamond and oil. To get these materials needs complicated science and technology, but also for textile industries it require agricultural products such as wool  and cotton while for processing industries you need raw materials produced through mechanized agriculture. The supply of raw materials in industries in order to produce finished goods requires science and technology.

Industrial personnel have been produced through science and technology knowledge. These include Engineers of different specialization such as structural, civil, mechanical and chemical engineers who are highly needed in industries. These have been produced through studying science subjects and done many scientific projects. The countries which have advanced in science and technology are also advanced in industries.


  • Provision of social services

Social services include things like education (schools), health services (hospital) water supply, electricity supply, transport and communication and housing. Science and technology plays it role as follows:-

  • Education

Education can be defined as skills values knowledge and altitude attained by man from the sources. In education field science and technology play important roles as follows: – first manufacturing of learning and teaching devices such as projector, computer, audio-visual devices such as tape recorder, DVD, film, movies, microphones and so forth. But, also science and technology offers learning and teaching materials such as books, exercise books, pens, pencil, rubber and mathematical set. Also the learning environment such as classes, blackboard/boards and offices in the learning environment is possible because of science and technology.

  • Health Services

Science and technology have direct link with health provision. It aids a lot in provision of health services. For example some devices have been introduced in health service provision especially complicated surgery devices, body checking such as ultra sounds and  x-rays which are more contemporary devices have developed by using science and technology. Besides, medicines have been extracted by using science and technology procedures, such as research and experimentations. Experts such as doctors, pharmacists and nurses have been trained   by using science and technology. It is obvious, that health services provision is inseparable from science and technology

  • Water Supply

The process of getting water from the source to the consumer is in need of science and technology. Drilling of water, distribution and treating of water is science and technology oriented process.

  • Electricity

This energy is in need of the sources. Science and technology is applied depending on the sources ,for example when utilized from water it need devices, but also alternative sources such as solar energy (solar panel are needed) biogas also is extracted from application of science and technology.


  • Transport and communication

Also it is part of social services. Building of infrastructure of transport and communication is in need of science and technology. Example tarmac roads, telephone lines and mobile devices have been provided by using science and technology. It is social services because induces communication among of the people, transport of agricultural products from rural areas to the urban centers and other functions.

  • Agriculture  

Like other role in modern industries and provision of social services, also, can be used in agriculture. Agriculture is an activity which encompasses animal keeping and crop production. Science and technology plays these roles:- production of agricultural inputs such as tractors, mineral fertilizers, combined machine for planting and harvesting, hybridization of plants d animals for quality production, but also science and technology is used in production of fungicides/ herbicides, agricultural expects such as veterinary officers are trained by using science and technology lastly preservation and storage devices such as deep freezer, refrigerators are produced by using science and technology.

  • Food

Food production cannot be separated from agriculture but also from science and technology. Science and technology plays a great role in leveraging and processing of food, but also the process of food preservation use scientific devices and   chemicals’, also processing of food in agro-industries is done by assistance of science and technology.

The role of science and technology in sustainable development

As it has already conceptualized previously sustainable development is a notion which entails attaining of human needs from the environment by present generation without compromising the future generation to get the same needs.

Science and technology is responsible for such sustainability as follows:

Science and technology aid a lot in sustainable agriculture.

This is possible through application of fertilizer, but also use of machine in agriculture will control traditional agriculture such as shifting cultivation and slash and burning nature of agriculture. The best way of conserving the land for the future generation will be possible. However, in other side science and technology if not checked well can adversely distort sustainable development.

Science and technology assists in resources use

For example, use of forest, mineral resources and others when science and technology is applied afforestation is possible but also assist much in creation of alternative source of energy such as solar energy, biogas and so forth. This reduces people demand on charcoal and firewood hence forth forest resources are protected for the coming generation.

Science and technology reduces environmental degradation through recycling of wastes

reduces unnecessary environmental pollution and hence protect the environment for present and future generations.

It is science and technology which assist in controlling the population growth

Population control is required in all process of sustainable development. This is through family planning which entails abortions, use of pills and use of condoms. These processes are scientific required measures. With population control the rate of depending on environment for agriculture, fuel demands, industries installation and just mention a few will be drastically reduced.


Science and technology is used in training of experts like vertenary officers’ environmental manager and environmental Engineers

These experts engage in creation of environmental policies, vaccinations of animals, recycling of wastes and so forth. With extension of experts services through training enable sustainable development.

Science and technology assists in production of alternative sources of energy

These include natural gas, wind energy, Hydro Electric Power (HEP), and bio gas. These are free from environmental pollution and deforestation. Thus, by using these sources of energy will be potential to the hitherto generations and the future.

However, science and technology, besides of assisting in sustainable development can also alter the sustainability if not checked. For example, it is advancement in science and technology which trigger environmental problem such as global warming, acidic rainfall, Environmental pollution and land degradation. This is because motivates the extension of industries and other big projects like mining and roads construction.

 Role of Government in promoting development of science and technology in our country

Government is vital instrument to promote and develop science and technology base. This is because it monitors and control different sectors of the economy, not only that, but also science and technology is the source of country’s development. With developed science and technology, inevitably, motivates development of industrial sector, agriculture, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s) and mining sector.


 The following are the role of government in development of science and technology in our country:-

Training and education its people in science and technology

In order to develop and promote science and technology, the government has to educate its people in science and technology. This means a lot of money is to be injected in installation of laboratories, provision of scholarship and paying for school fees for students in science programs. These will multiply some trained experts such as doctors, engineer, environmental managers, technician, teachers who will assist in promotion of science and technology.

Opening many schools, polytechnics and universities for science students

Science and technology cannot be promoted if the countries have no enough schools, polytechnics and universities. Thus, the role of government is to make sure that more schools in science subjects have opened and furnished with science requirements such as books, laboratories and teachers. These schools will be the sources of scientists, colleges and polytechnics and universities.


Formulation of clear policy on science and technology development

The clear policy will encourage people within the country to be innovative and inventive through adherence to the protection of intellectual property and motivating some innovators. All of these activities will encourage people to engage in scientific activities. Tanzania should draw well polices from other countries which have improved in science and technology like china, USA, Britain and Japan.

Motivation of scientists through providing them good salaries, good working conditions, soft loans and capital necessary for their development

Good motivation will lessen the problem of brain drain in which many scientist normally moves across the boarder to be employed elsewhere especially in developed countries, but also in well motivating countries in Africa like Botswana and South Africa.

Investment of many institutes, industries, small and medium enterprises on which many scientists will be employed and offered with practical training opportunities  and research

Besides, these institutes industries and small medium enterprises will  act  as the consultant to the government but also will adopt, assimilate and absorb the imported science and technology, thanks to the presence of VETA colleges which deal with adaptation and a assimilation of science and technology, but also some science and technology institutes such as University of Dar es Salaam whereby recently the world Bank has injected  USA $ 4million (Tsh. 6 billion) for science projects but also Sokoine University of Agriculture, Muhumbili University college of health science, Rwegalulira water resources institute, national college of Mbeya and Dar es Salaam institutes of technology, others includes center for Agricultural mechanization and rural technology, national institute of medical research, Tanzania industrial research and Development organization and Tanzania Bureau of standards. Briefly, these institutes deal with S & D, but also employment of scientists, consultations, training of scientists as well as absorption of transferred science and technology.


Lessening technological dependency from foreign countries

This can be done through promoting and encouraging local technology which is appropriate to the people’s daily activities and encourage the use of products made from local craftsmen. Tanzania is endowed people with different skills such as iron smith balk clothes maker, carvers and decorators .these produces different tools which can be consumed locally and henceforth reduce dependency.

The government is very vital in the development of science and technology and   disseminating it. It is through science and technology which can enable a country to develop to the high level in agriculture, mining, industries, transport, communication and information technology and others. With this regards science has to be imported, innovated and researched for the sustainable development.



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