can carry both energy and information. It both is the way the sun
delivers energy to the world, making life possible, and it is a very
important way that we learn about the world, through our sense of sight.
Sources of Light
Identify sources of light
sun is the natural source of light. On the other hand, torch, candle,
kerosene lamp, electric bulb, Florescent lamp, etc are some common
examples of artificial sources of light, bodies which give out light are
called Luminous bodies .
Difference between Luminous and Non-luminous Bodies
Distinguish luminous from non-luminous bodies
bodies are bodies which do not produce light, non-luminous bodies are
seen because they reflect light from luminous bodies in such a way that
our eyes receive light from travel in a straight line. Due to
transmission of light, we are able to see.
Propagation and Transmission of Light
The Concept of Rays and Beam of Light
Explain the concept of rays and beam of light
straight line showing a path of light is called a ray which is the
direction of the path taken by light. Rays of light are represented in
diagrams by full straight line with arrow marking the direction in which
the light is travelling
beam is a stream of light rays, and it is usually represented by a
number of rays. Rays of light can converge (converging rays) or they can
diverge (diverging rays)
A ray of light
Verification that Light Rays Travel in Straight Line
Verify that light rays travels in straight line
Aim: To demonstrate the rectilinear propagation of light.
Materials and apparatus
The pieces of card board with a hole in each.
Source of light, eg. a candle.
Put the pieces of cardboard with the holes in a straight line.
Arrange them to a distance of about 50cm apart.
Place a lighted candle at one end of cardboard A. observe the light from behind cardboard C.
Now displace any one of the pieces of cardboard, eg. Cardboard B.
Propagation of light in straight line.
observing from card C, the candle can be seen. Displacing any one of
cardboards, the candle can no longer be seen as the holes are no longer
in a straight line. This happens due to the fact that light travels in a
Transparent, Translucent and Opaque Materials
Identify transparent, translucent and opaque materials
can be grouped according to transmission of light through them, ie. The
degree passage of light as light rays falls on their surface.
These are bodies which do not allow light to pass through them, ie. Stones, wood, concrete walls and bodies.
are bodies which allow small amount of light falling on them to pass
through e.g oiled paper, some plastic materials and tinted glass.
are bodies which allow all light to pass through them, e.g glass, pure
water and air. The transmission of light through different bodies can be
investigated by performing other experiment.
Aim: To investigate transmission of light.
Sheet of paper
Sheet of glass
Reflection of Light
The Concept of Reflection of Light
Explain the concept of reflection of light
are obtained from hard and highly polished surfaces such as mirrors and
sheets of glass than from rougher surfaces, when light falls on the
surface at an inclined plane angle, it is sent back into the air. This
is also the case when light falls on all highly polished metals. If
light falls on a polished surface at an angle 900, it is sent back into the air on the same path.
Difference between Regular and Irregular Reflection of Light
Distinguish regular from irregular reflection of light
Surface can be classified into two types:
Highly polished surfaces, examples are mirror, polished cooking utensil and silvered iron sheets.
Rough surface, examples are unpolished wooden table, sheet of paper and cobblestone road.
Application of the Laws of Reflection of Light
Apply the laws of reflection of light
Reflection is guided by some natural laws called “Laws of reflection” the Laws of reflection state that:
The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal at the point of incidence all lies in the same plane.
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
Image Formed by a Plane Mirror
Describe image formed by a plane mirror
clear image is recognised as a result of reflection of the beam
striking the highly polished surfaces. This is called regular
mirrors were replaced by a piece of sheet of paper, there would be no
image to be seen even as a result of diffuse or irregular reflection,
this is shown below.
Irregular or diffuse reflection.
Terms used in reflection
light rays strike a surface (e.g a mirror) there are two rays of
importance, namely Incident and Reflected rays, see the figure below:
Reflection of light rays.
MO is a ray of light falling on a mirror; it is called the incident ray.
is a ray of light leaving the mirror after reflection; it is called the
reflected ray. Line NO is perpendicular to the mirror , it is called
the normal. ANGLE MON is called the angle of incidence. (i) this is the
angle between the incident ray and the normal , angle NOP is called the
angle of reflection (t). this is the angle between reflected ray and the
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